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From: How to Use Your Mind

Of all the mental operations employed by the student, memory is
probably the one in which the greatest inefficiency is manifested.
Though we often fail to realize it, much of our life is taken up with
memorizing. Every time we make use of past experience, we rely upon
this function of the mind, but in no occupation is it quite so
practically important as in study. We shall begin our investigation of
memory by dividing it into four phases or stages--Impression,
Retention, Recall and Recognition. Any act of memory involves them all.
There is first a stage when the material is being impressed; second, a
stage when it is being retained so that it may be revived in the
future; third, a stage of recall when the retained material is revived
to meet present needs; fourth, a feeling of recognition, through which
the material is recognized as having previously been in the mind.

Impression is accomplished through the sense organs; and in the
foregoing chapter we laid down the rule: Guard the avenues of
impression and admit only such things as you wish to retain. This
necessitates that you go slowly at first. This is a principle of all
habit formation, but is especially important in habits of memorizing.
Much of the poor memory that people complain about is due to the fact
that they make first impressions carelessly. One reason why people fail
to remember names is that they do not get a clear impression of the
name at the start. They are introduced in a hurry or the introducer
mumbles; consequently no clear impression is secured. Under such
circumstances how could one expect to retain and recall the name? Go
slowly, then, in impressing material for the first time. As you look up
the words of a foreign language in the lexicon, trying to memorize
their English equivalents, take plenty of time. Obtain a clear
impression of the sound and appearance of the words.

Inasmuch as impressions may be made through any of the sense organs,
one problem in the improvement of memory concerns the choice of sense
avenues. As an infant you used all senses impartially in your eager
search after information. You voraciously put things into your mouth
and discovered that some things were sweet, some sour. You bumped your
head against things and learned that some were hard and some soft. In
your insatiable curiosity you pulled things apart and peered into them;
in short, utilized all the sense organs. In adult life, however, and in
education as it takes place through the agency of books and
instructors, most learning depends upon the eye and ear. Even yet,
however, you learn many things through the sense of touch and through
muscle movement, though you may be unaware of it. You probably have
better success retaining impressions made upon one sense than another.
The majority of people retain better things that are visually
impressed. Such persons think often in terms of visual images. When
thinking of water running from a faucet, they can see the water fall,
see it splash, but have no trace of the sound. The whole event is
noiseless in memory. When they think of their instructor, they can see
him standing at his desk but cannot imagine the sound of his voice.
When striving to think of the causes leading to the Civil War, they
picture them as they are listed on the page of the text-book or
note-book. Other people have not this ability to recall in visual
terms, but depend to greater extent upon sounds. When asked to think
about their instructor, they do it in terms of his voice. When asked to
conjugate a French verb, they hear it pronounced mentally but do not
see it on the page. These are extremes of imagery type, but they
illustrate preferences as they are found in many persons. Some persons
use all senses with ease; others unconsciously work out combinations,
preferring one sense for some kinds of material and another for other
kinds. For example, one might prefer visual impression for remembering
dates in history but auditory impression for conjugating French verbs.
You will find it profitable to examine yourself and discover your
preferences. If you find that you have greater difficulty in
remembering material impressed through the ear than through the eye,
reduce things to visual terms as much as possible. Make your lecture
notes more complete or tabulate things that you wish to remember, thus
securing impression from the written form. The writer has difficulty in
remembering names that are only heard. So he asks that the name be
spelled, then projects the letters on an imaginary background, thus
forming visual stuff which can easily be recalled. If, on the contrary,
you remember best the things that you hear, you may find it a good plan
to read your lessons aloud. Many a student, upon the discovery of such
a preference, has increased his memory ability many fold by adopting
the simple expedient of reading his lessons aloud. It might be pointed
out that while you are reading aloud, you are making more than auditory
impressions. By the use of the vocal organs you are making muscular
impressions, which also aid in learning, as will be pointed out in
chapter X.

After this discussion do not jump to the conclusion that just because
you find some difficulty in using one sense avenue for impression, it
is therefore impossible to develop it. Facility in using particular
senses can be gained by practice. To improve ability to form visual
images of things, practise calling up visions of things. Try to picture
a page of your history textbook. Can you see the headlines of the
sections and the paragraphs? To develop auditory imagery, practise
calling up sounds. Try to image your French instructor's voice in
saying _eleve_. The development of these sense fields is a slow and
laborious process and one questions whether it is worth while for a
student to undertake the labor involved when another sense is already
very efficient. Probably it is most economical to Arrange impressions
so as to favor the sense that is already well developed and reliable.

Another important condition of impression is repetition. It is well
known that material which is repeated several times is remembered more
easily than that impressed but once. If two repetitions induce a given
liability to recall, four or eight will secure still greater liability
of recall. Your knowledge of brain action makes this rule intelligible,
because you know the pathway is deepened every time the nervous current
passes over it.

Experiments in the psychological laboratory have shown that it is best
in making impressions to make more than enough impressions to insure
recall. "If material is to be retained for any length of time, a simple
mastery of it for immediate recall is not sufficient. It should be
learned far beyond the point of immediate reproduction if time and
energy are to be saved." This principle of learning points out the fact
that there are two kinds of memory--immediate and deferred. The first
kind involves recall immediately after impression is made; the second
involves recall at some later time. It is a well-known fact that things
learned a long time before they are to be recalled fade away. If you
are not going to recall material until a long time after the
impression, store up enough impressions so that you can afford to lose
a few and still retain enough until time for recall. Another reason for
"overlearning" is that when the time comes for recall you are likely to
be disturbed. If it is a time of public performance, you may be
embarrassed; or you may be hurried or under distractions. Accordingly
you should have the material exceedingly well memorized so that these
distractions will not prove detrimental.

The mere statement made above, that repetition is necessary in
impression, is not sufficient. It is important to know how to
distribute the repetitions. Suppose you are memorizing "Psalm of Life"
to be recited a month from to-day, and that you require thirty
repetitions of the poem to learn it. Shall you make these thirty
repetitions at one sitting? Or shall you distribute them among several
sittings? In general, it is better to spread the repetitions over a
period of time. The question then arises, what is the most effective
distribution? Various combinations are possible. You might rehearse the
poem once a day during the month, or twice a day for the first fifteen
days, or the last fifteen days, four times every fourth day, _ad
infinitum_. In the face of these possibilities is there anything that
will guide us in distributing the repetitions? We shall get some light
on the question from an examination of the curve of forgetting--a curve
that has been plotted showing the rate at which the mind tends to
forget. Forgetting proceeds according to law, the curve descending
rapidly at first and then more slowly. "The larger proportion of the
material learned is forgotten the first day or so. After that a
constantly decreasing amount is forgotten on each succeeding day for
perhaps a week, when the amount remains practically stationary." This
gives us some indication that the early repetitions should be closer
together than those at the end of the period. So long as you are
forgetting rapidly you will need more repetitions in order to
counterbalance the tendency to forget. You might well make five
repetitions; then rest. In about an hour, five more; within the next
twenty-four hours, five more. By this time you should have the poem
memorized, and all within two days. You would still have fifteen
repetitions of the thirty, and these might be used in keeping the poem
fresh in the mind by a repetition every other day.

As intimated above, one important principle in memorizing is to make
the first impressions as early as possible, for older impressions have
many chances of being retained. This is evidenced by the vividness of
childhood scenes in the minds of our grandparents. An old soldier
recalls with great vividness events that happened during the Civil War,
but forgets events of yesterday. There is involved here a principle of
nervous action that you have already encountered; namely, that
impressions are more easily made and retained in youth. It should also
be observed that pathways made early have more chances of being used
than those made recently. Still another peculiarity of nervous action
is revealed in these extended periods of memorizing. It has been
discovered that if a rest is taken between impressions, the impressions
become more firmly fixed. This points to the presence of a surprising
power, by which we are able to learn, as it were, while we sleep. We
shall understand this better if we try to imagine what is happening in
the nervous system. Processes of nutrition are constantly going on. The
blood brings in particles to repair the nerve cells, rebuilding them
according to the pattern left by the last impression. Indeed, the
entrance of this new material makes the impression even more fixed. The
nutritional processes seem to set the impression much as a hypo bath
fixes or sets an impression on a photographic plate. This peculiarity
of memory led Professor James to suggest, paradoxically, that we learn
to skate in summer and to swim in winter. And, indeed, one usually
finds, in beginning the skating season, that after the initial
stiffness of muscles wears off, one glides along with surprising
agility. You see then that if you plan things rightly, Nature will do
much of your learning for you. It might be suggested that perhaps
things impressed just before going to sleep have a better chance to
"set" than things impressed at other times for the reason that sleep is
the time when the reparative processes of the body are most active.

Since the brain pattern requires time to "set," it is important that
after the first impression you refrain from introducing anything
immediately into the mind that might disturb it. After you have
impressed the poem you are memorizing, do not immediately follow it by
another poem. Let the brain rest for three or four minutes until after
the first impressions have had a chance to "set."

Now that we have regarded this "unconscious memorizing" from the
neurological standpoint, let us consider it from the psychological
standpoint. How are the ideas being modified during the intervals
between impressions? Modern psychology has discovered that much
memorizing goes on without our knowing it, paradoxical as that may
seem. The processes may be described in terms of the doctrine of
association, which is that whenever two things have once been
associated together in the mind, there is a tendency thereafter "if the
first of them recurs, for the other to come with it." After the poem of
our illustration has once been repeated, there is a tendency for events
in everyday experience that are like it to associate themselves with
it. For example, in the course of a day or week many things might arise
and recall to you the line, "Life is real, life is earnest", and it
would become, by that fact, more firmly fixed in the mind. This
valuable semi-conscious recall requires that you must make the first
impression as early as possible before the time for ultimate recall.
This persistence of ideas in the mind means "that the process of
learning does not cease with the actual work of learning, but that, if
not disturbed, this process runs on of itself for a time, and adds a
little to the result of our labors. It also means that, if it is to our
advantage to stand in readiness with some word or thought, we shall be
able to do so, if only this word or thought recur to us but once, some
time before the critical moment. So we remember to keep a promise to
pay a call, to make a remark at the proper time, even though we turn
our mind to other work or talk for some hours between. We can do this
because, if not vigorously prevented, ideas and words keep on
reappearing in the mind." You may utilize this principle in
theme-writing to good advantage. As soon as the instructor announces
the subject for a theme, begin to think about it. Gather together all
the ideas you have about the subject and start your mind to work upon
it. Suppose you take as a theme-subject The Value of Training in Public
Speaking for a Business Man. The first time this is suggested to you, a
few thoughts, at least, will come to you. Write them down, even though
they are disconnected and heterogeneous. Then as you go about your
other work you will find a number of occasions that will arouse ideas
bearing upon this subject. You may read in a newspaper of a brilliant
speech made before the Chamber of Commerce by a leading business man,
which will serve as an illustration to support your affirmative
position; or you may attend a banquet where a prominent business man
disappoints his audience with a wretched speech. Such experiences, and
many others, bearing more or less directly upon the subject, will come
to you, and will call up the theme-subject, with which they will unite
themselves. Write down these ideas as they occur, and you will find
that when you start to compose the theme formally, it almost writes
itself, requiring for the most part only expansion and arrangement of
ideas. While thus organizing the theme you will reap even more benefits
from your early start, for, as you are composing it, you will find new
ideas crowding in upon you which you did not know you possessed, but
which had been associating themselves in your mind with this topic even
when you were unaware of the fact.

In writing themes, the principle of distribution of time may also be
profitably employed. After you have once written a theme, lay it aside
for a while--perhaps a week. Then when you take it up, read it in a
detached manner and you will note many places where it may be improved.
These benefits are to be enjoyed only when a theme is planned a long
time ahead. Hence the rule to start as early as possible.

Before leaving the subject of theme-writing, which was called up by the
discussion of unconscious memory, another suggestion will be given that
may be of service to you. When correcting a theme, employ more than one
sense avenue. Do not simply glance over it with your eye. Read it
aloud, either to yourself or, better still, to someone else. When you
do this you will be amazed to discover how different it sounds and what
a new view you secure of it. When you thus change your method of
composition, you will find a new group of ideas thronging into your
mind. In the auditory rendition of a theme you will discover faults of
syntax which escaped you in silent reading. You will note duplication
of words, split infinitives, mixed tenses, poorly balanced sentences.
Moreover, if your mind has certain peculiarities, you may find even
more advantages accruing from such a practice. The author, for example,
has a slightly different set of ideas at his disposal according to the
medium of expression employed. When writing with a pencil, one set of
ideas comes to mind; with a typewriter slightly different ideas arise;
when talking to an audience, still different ideas. Three sets of ideas
and three vocabularies are thus available for use on any subject. In
adopting this device of composing through several mediums, you should
combine with it the principle of distributing time already discussed in
connection with repetition of impressions. Write a theme one day,
then lay it aside for a few days and go back to it with a fresh mind.
The rests will be found very beneficial in helping you to get a new
viewpoint of the subject.

Reverting to our discussion of memory, we come upon another question:
In memorizing material like the poem of our example, should one impress
the entire poem at once, or break it up into parts, impressing a stanza
each day? Most people would respond, without thought, the latter, and,
as a matter of fact, most memorizing takes place in this way.
Experimental psychology, however, has discovered that this is
uneconomical. The selection, if of moderate length, should be impressed
as a whole. If too long for this, it should be broken up as little as
possible. In order to see the necessity for this let us examine your
experiences with the memorization of poems in your early school days.
You probably proceeded as follows: After school one day, you learned
the first stanza, then went out to play. The next day you learned the
second one, and so on. You thought at the end of a week that you had
memorized it because, at the end of each day's sitting, you were able
to recite perfectly the stanza learned that day. On "speaking day" you
started out bravely and recited the first stanza without mishap. When
you started to think of the second one, however, it would not come. The
memory balked. Now what was the matter? How can we explain this
distressing blank? In psychological terms, we ascribe the difficulty to
the failure to make proper associations between stanzas. Association
was made effectively between the lines of the single stanzas, but not
between the separate stanzas. After you finished impressing the first
stanza, you went about something else; playing ball, perhaps. When you
approached the poem the next day you started in with the second stanza.
There was then no bridge between the two. There was nothing to link the
last line of the first stanza,

"And things are not what they seem,"

with the first line of the next stanza,

"Life is real, life is earnest."

This makes clear the necessity of impressing the poem as a whole
instead of by parts.

According to another classification, there are two ways of
memorizing--by rote and by logical associations. Rote memorizing
involves the repetition of material just as it stands, and usually
requires such long and laborious drill that it is seldom economical.
True, some matter must be memorized this way; such as the days of the
week and the names of the months; but there is another and gentler
method which is usually more effective and economical than that of
brutal repetition. That is the method of logical association, by which
one links up a new fact with something already in the mind. If, for
example, you wish to remember the date of the World's Fair in Chicago,
you might proceed as follows: Ask yourself, What did the Fair
commemorate? The discovery of America in 1492, the four hundredth
anniversary occurring in 1892. The Fair could not be made ready in that
year, however, so was postponed a year. Such a process of memorizing
the date is less laborious than the method of rote memory, and is
usually more likely to lead to ready recall. The old fact already in
mind acts as a magnet which at some later time may call up other facts
that had once been associated with it. You can easily see that this new
fact might have been associated with several old facts, thus securing
more chances of being called up. From this it may be inferred that the
more facts you have in your mind about a subject the more chances you
have of retaining new facts. It is sometimes thought that if a person
stores so much in his memory it will soon be so full that he cannot
memorize any more. This is a false notion, involving a conception of
the brain as a hopper into which impressions are poured until it runs
over. On the contrary, it should be regarded as an interlacing of
fibers with infinite possibilities of inter-connection, and no one ever
exhausts the number of associations that can be made.

The method of logical association may be employed with telling effect
in the study of foreign languages. When you meet a new word scrutinize
it carefully for some trace of a word already familiar to you either in
that language or in another. This independent discovery of meanings is
a very great aid in saving time and in fixing the meaning of new words.
Opportunities for this method are especially frequent in the German
language, since so many German words are formed by compounding other
words. "Rathausmarkt" is a long and apparently difficult German word,
and one's first temptation is to look it up in the lexicon and promptly
forget it. Let us analyze it, however, and we shall see that it is only
a compound of already familiar words. "_Rat_" is already familiar as
the word for counsel ("_raten"_ to give advice); "_haus_" is equally
familiar. So we see that the first part of the word means
council-house; the council-house of a city is called a city hall.
"_Markt_" is equally familiar as market-square, so the significance of
the entire word stands, city-hall-square. By such a method of utilizing
facts already known, you may make yourself much more independent of the
lexicon and may make your memory for foreign words much more tenacious.

We approach a phase of impression the importance of which is often
unsuspected; namely, the intention with which memorizing is done. The
fidelity of memory is greatly affected by the intention. If, at the
time of impression, you intend to retain only until the time of recall,
the material tends to slip away after that time. If, however, you
impress with the intention to retain permanently the material stays by
you better. Students make a great mistake when they study for the
purpose merely of retaining until after examination time. Intend to
retain facts permanently, and there will be greater likelihood of their


Readings: Adams (1) chapter III. Seashore (16) chapter II. Swift (20)
chapter VII. Watt (21).

Exercise I. Cite examples from your own experience showing the effects
of the following faults in making impressions. _a_. First impression
not clear. _b_. Insufficient number of repetitions. _c_. Use of rote
method instead of method of logical association. _d_. Impressions not
distributed. _e_. Improper use of "part" method.

Exercise 2. After experimentation, state what is your most effective
sense avenue for the impression of foreign words, facts in history, the
pronunciation of English words.

Exercise 3. Make a preliminary draft of your next theme; lay it aside
for a day or two; then write another on the same subject; combine the
two, using the best parts of each; lay this aside for a day or two;
then read it aloud, making such changes as are prompted by the auditory
presentation. Can you find elements of worth in this method, which will
warrant you in adopting it, at least, in part?



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